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Parapsychology in Germany – review of Heather Wolffram's

Epistemological frames. One of the strengths of Wolffram’s study is the manner of detail in which she traces the nuances, overlaps, confrontations and conflicts among psychical researchers, occultists, spiritualists and other groups on the fringes of German scientific society. On the scientific level, the most serious split among the psychical researchers was that between “spiritist” and “animist” perspectives, explaining the phenomena of mediumism respectively as the activity of actually existing discarnate spirits, or as functions related to as of yet uncharted characteristics of the human psyche and/or organism. One of the book’s main protagonists, the physician Alfred von Schrenck-Notzing, was a proponent of the latter theory. It was on the basis of this theory that Schrenck-Notzing established his laboratory in Munich in the period around the Great War. A closer analysis of this turn to experimentation is provided by Wolffram in chapter three. Here the analysis centres around the importance of Schrenck-Notzing’s attempt to move psychical research away from the casual setting of private residences and instead study séances in controlled environments more amenable to scientific inquiry. In this way his approach represented a stricter experimentalism, which even included the controlled training of gifted mediums over time. On the supposition that their “abilities” were “natural”, in the sense of having their seat in the human organism, such training was supposed to make their operation independent on the typical setting of the séance room, which had always suggested foul play and for good reasons blocked the acceptance of data produced in such settings.

But the fascination for, and spread of, parapsychology in Germany (as elsewhere) was connected to much else besides the actual theories and experimental protocols developed to study ostensibly paranormal phenomena. Several of these are explored in separate chapters, including its connection to hypnosis and mesmerism, which was spread both on the stage and through a discourse on healing and medicine, which had ties to the medical establishment (all explored in chapter two); its connection to fashionable ideological and philosophical frameworks such as vitalism and holism (chapter four); and not least to “occult crime” stories blown up in the media and tried in the courts (chapter five).

University of Wisconsin Press My Germany: A Jewish Writer Returns to the World His Parents Escaped
Book (University of Wisconsin Press)

We live in a me-too society and the herd is slow

by scram

to move. The most conformist people are teens and tweens who want to wear what their friends wear. There was an interesting story on korea that it's even worse there - sticking out different means ridicule - and that goes on in junior and high schools here too. As for cars, similar fears of being weird - in a bad way - aren't much more evolved. My cousin got a black Honda pilot b/c she was worried about resale value and thought no one would want the green she first wanted. Green? That's a trend:
Grabber Blue
Another emerging trend in the car-color market is the comeback of pastels

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